Manipulating cf.Field
objects¶
Manipulating a field generally involves operating on its data array and making any necessary changes to the field’s domain to make it consistent with the new array.
Data array¶
Conversion to a numpy array¶
A field’s data array may be converted to either an independent numpy
array or a numpy array view (numpy.ndarray.view
) with its
array
and varray
attributes respectively:
>>> a = f.array
>>> print a
[[2  4  6]]
>>> a[0, 0] = 999
>>> print a
[[999  4  6]]
>>> print f.array
[[2  4  6]]
Changing the numpy array view in place will also change the field’s data array inplace:
>>> v = f.varray
>>> print v
[[2  4  6]]
>>> v[0, 0] = 999
>>> print f.array
[[999  4  6]]
A field exposes the numpy array interface and so may be used as input to any of the numpy array creation functions:
>>> print f.array
[[2  4  6]]
>>> numpy.all(f.array)
True
>>> numpy.all(f)
True
Data mask¶
A copy of a field’s missing data mask is returned by its
mask
attribute.
This mask is an independent field in its own right, and so changes to it will not be seen by the field which generated it. See the assignment section for details on how to edit the field’s mask in place.
Copying¶
A deep copy of a field may be created with its copy
method,
which is functionally equivalent to, but faster than, using the
copy.deepcopy
function:
>>> g = f.copy()
>>> import copy
>>> g = copy.deepcopy(f)
Copying utilizes LAMA copying functionality.
Subspacing¶
Subspacing a field means subspacing its data array and its domain in a consistent manner.
A field may be subspaced in “indexspace” or “domainspace”. In indexspace, a subspace is defined by specifying indices of the data array, whilst in domainspace a subspace is defined as the part of the data array corresponds to given domain item values (e.g. particular coordinate values)
Subspacing utilizes LAMA subspacing functionality.
Indexing¶
Subspacing by axis indices is done with the use of square brackets ([]) on a field and uses an extended Python slicing syntax which is similar to numpy array indexing:
>>> f.shape
(12, 73, 96)
>>> f[...].shape
(12, 73, 96)
>>> f[slice(0, 12), :, 10:0:2].shape
(12, 73, 5)
>>> f[..., f.coord('longitude')<180].shape
(12, 73, 48)
There are three extensions to the numpy indexing functionality:
Size 1 axes are never removed.
An integer index i takes the ith element but does not reduce the rank of the output array by one:
>>> f.shape (12, 73, 96) >>> f[0].shape (1, 73, 96) >>> f[3, slice(10, 0, 2), 95:93:1].shape (1, 5, 2)
The indices for each axis work independently.
When more than one axis’s slice is a 1d boolean sequence or 1d sequence of integers, then these indices work independently along each axis (similar to the way vector subscripts work in Fortran), rather than by their elements:
>>> f.shape (12, 73, 96) >>> f[:, [0, 72], [5, 4, 3]].shape (12, 2, 3)
Note that the indices of the last example would raise an error when given to a numpy array.
Boolean indices may be any object which exposes the numpy array interface, such as the field’s coordinate objects:
>>> f[:, f.coord('latitude')<0].shape (12, 36, 96)
Alternatively, the indices may be applied by indexing
Field.subspace
. For example:
>>> f[..., 2:34:2, [2, 4, 5]]
is exactly equivalent to
>>> f.subspace[..., 2:34:2, [2, 4, 5]]
Domain values¶
Subspacing by values of domain items (coordinates or cell measures) allows a subspaced field to be defined via metadata values of its domain. The benefits of subspacing in this fashion are:
 The axes to be subspaced may identified by name.
 The position in the data array of each axis need not be known and the axes to be subspaced may be given in any order.
 Axes for which no subspacing is required need not be specified.
 Size 1 axes of the domain which are not spanned by the data array may be specified.
Coordinate values are provided as keyword arguments to a call to
subspace
. Coordinates are identified by their
identity
or their axis’s identifier in the field’s
domain.
>>> f.subspace().shape
(12, 73, 96)
>>> f.subspace(latitude=0).shape
(12, 1, 96)
>>> f.subspace(latitude=cf.wi(30, 30)).shape
(12, 25, 96)
>>> f.subspace(long=cf.ge(270, 'degrees_east'), lat=cf.set([0, 2.5, 10])).shape
(12, 3, 24)
>>> f.subspace(latitude=cf.lt(0, 'degrees_north'))
(12, 36, 96)
>>> f.subspace(latitude=[cf.lt(0, 'degrees_north'), 90])
(12, 37, 96)
>>> import math
>>> f.subspace('exact', longitude=cf.lt(math.pi, 'radian'), height=2)
(12, 73, 48)
>>> f.subspace(height=cf.gt(3))
IndexError: No indices found for 'height' values gt 3
>>> f.subspace(dim2=3.75).shape
(12, 1, 96)
>>> f.subspace(time=cf.le(cf.dt('18600616 12:00:00')).shape
(6, 73, 96)
>>> f.subspace(time=cf.gt(cf.dt(1860, 7)),shape
(5, 73, 96)
Note that if a comparison function (such as cf.wi
) does not specify
any units, then the units of the named coordinate are assumed.
Cyclic axes¶
>>> f[..., 10, 10]
(12, 25, 96)
>>> f.subspace(longitude=cf.wi(30, 30))
(12, 3, 24)
>>> f.subspace(long=cf.ge(270, 'degrees_east'), lat=cf.set([0, 2.5, 10])).shape
(12, 3, 24)
Assignment¶
Elements of a field’s data array may be changed by assigning values
directly to an indexed subspace the field or by using the
where
method.
Assignment uses LAMA functionality, so it is possible to assign to fields which are larger than the available memory.
Array elements may be set from a field or logically scalar object,
using the same metadataaware broadcasting rules
as for field arithmetic and comparison operations. In the
subspace
case, the object attribute must be broadcastable
to the defined subspace, whilst in the where
case the
object must be broadcastable to the field itself.
The treatment of missing data elements depends on the value of field’s
hardmask
attribute. If it is True then masked elements
will not unmasked, otherwise masked elements may be set to any
value. In either case, unmasked elements may be set to any value
(including missing data).
Set all values to 273.15:
>>> f[...] = 273.15
or equivalently:
>>> f.where(True, 273.15, None, i=True)
Set all negative data array values to zero and leave all other elements unchanged:
>>> g = f.where(f<0, 0)
Double the values in the northern hemisphere:
>>> index = f.indices(longitude=cf.ge(0))
>>> f[index] *= 2
See cf.Field.where
for more examples.
Selection¶
Field selection¶
Fields from field lists may be selected according to conditions on
their metadata with the cf.FieldList.select
method (as well as the
cf.Field.select
method). Conditions may be given on attributes and
CF properties, domain items of the field (dimension coordinate,
auxiliary coordinate, cell measure or coordinate reference objects),
the number of field domain axes and the number of field data array
axes. For example:
>>> f
[<CF Field: eastward_wind(grid_latitude(110), grid_longitude(106)) m s1>,
<CF Field: air_temperature(time(12), latitude(73), longitude(96)) K>]
>>> f.select('air_temperature')
<CF Field: air_temperature(time(12), latitude(73), longitude(96)) K>]
>>> f.select('air_temperature', rank=2)
[]
>>> f.select('air_temperature', items={'latitude': cf.gt(0)}, rank=cf.ge(3))
<CF Field: air_temperature(time(12), latitude(73), longitude(96)) K>
Any of the select
arguments may also be used with
cf.read
to select fields when reading from files:
>>> f = cf.read('file*.nc', select='air_temperature')
>>> f = cf.read('file*.nc', select_options={'rank': cf.gt(2)})
>>> f = cf.read('file*.nc', select='air_temperature', select_options={'rank': cf.gt(2)})
This may be faster than reading all fields and then selecting afterwards.
Domain item selection¶
Domain items may be retrieved with a variety of methods, some specific
to each item type (such as cf.Field.dim
) and some more generic (such
as cf.Field.coords
and cf.Field.item
):
Item  Field retrieval methods 

Dimension coordinate object  dim , dims , coord , coords
item , items 
Auxiliary coordinate object  aux , auxs , coord , coords
item , items 
Cell measure object  measure , measures , item , items 
Coordinate reference object  ref , refs , item , items 
In each case the singular method form (such as aux
) returns
an actual domain item whereas the plural method form (such as
auxs
) returns a dictionary whose keys are the domain item
identifiers with corresponding values of the items themselves.
For example, to retrieve a unique dimension coordinate object with a standard name of “time”:
>>> f.dim('time')
<CF DimensionCoordinate: time(12) noleap>
To retrieve all coordinate objects and their domain identifiers:
>>> f.coords()
{'dim0': <CF DimensionCoordinate: time(12) noleap>,
'dim1': <CF DimensionCoordinate: latitude(64) degrees_north>,
'dim2': <CF DimensionCoordinate: longitude(128) degrees_east>,
'dim3': <CF DimensionCoordinate: height(1) m>}
To retrieve all domain items and their domain identifiers:
>>> f.items()
{'dim0': <CF DimensionCoordinate: time(12) noleap>,
'dim1': <CF DimensionCoordinate: latitude(64) degrees_north>,
'dim2': <CF DimensionCoordinate: longitude(128) degrees_east>,
'dim3': <CF DimensionCoordinate: height(1) m>}
In this example, all of the items happen to be coordinates.
Aggregation¶
Fields are aggregated into as few multidimensional fields as possible
with the cf.aggregate
function, which implements the CF aggregation
rules.
>>> f
[<CF Field: air_temperature(time(12), latitude(73), longitude(96)) K>,
<CF Field: air_temperature(latitude(73), longitude(96)) K @ 273.15>]
>>> print f
Field: air_temperature (ncvar%temp)

Data : air_temperature(time(12), latitude(73), longitude(96)) K
Cell methods : time: mean
AXes : time(12) = [18600116 12:00:00, ..., 18601216 12:00:00]
: latitude(73) = [90, ..., 90] degrees_north
: longitude(96) = [0, ..., 356.25] degrees_east
: height(1) = [2] m
Field: air_temperature (ncvar%temperature)

Data : air_temperature(latitude(73), longitude(96)) K @ 273.15
Cell methods : time: mean
Axes : time(12) = [18591216 12:00:00]
: longitude(96) = [356.25, ..., 0] degrees_east
: latitude(73) = [90, ..., 90] degrees_north
: height(1) = [2] m
...
>>> g = cf.aggregate(f)
>>> g
[<CF Field: air_temperature(time(13), latitude(73), longitude(96)) K>]
>>> print g
Field: air_temperature (ncvar%temperature)

Data : air_temperature(time(13), latitude(73), longitude(96)) K
Cell methods : time: mean
Axes : time(13) = [18591216 12:00:00, ..., 18601216 12:00:00]
: latitude(73) = [90, ..., 90] degrees_north
: longitude(96) = [0, ..., 356.25] degrees_east
: height(1) = [2] m
By default, the fields returned by cf.read
have been aggregated:
>>> f = cf.read('file*.nc')
>>> len(f)
1
>>> f = cf.read('file*.nc', aggregate=False)
>>> len(f)
12
Arithmetic and comparison¶
Arithmetic, bitwise and comparison operations are defined on a field
as elementwise operations on its data array which yield a new
cf.Field
object or, for augmented assignments, modify the field’s
data array inplace.
A field’s data array is modified in a very similar way to how a numpy array would be modified in the same operation, i.e. broadcasting ensures that the operands are compatible and the data array is modified elementwise.
Broadcasting is metadataaware and will automatically account for arbitrary configurations, such as axis order, but will not allow fields with incompatible metadata to be combined, such as adding a field of height to one of temperature.
The resulting field’s metadata will be very similar to that of the operands which are also fields. Differences arise when the existing metadata can not correctly describe the newly created field. For example, when dividing a field with units of metres by one with units of seconds, the resulting field will have units of metres per second.
Arithmetic and comparison utilizes LAMA functionality so data arrays larger than the available physical memory may be operated on.
Broadcasting¶
The term broadcasting describes how data arrays of the operands with different shapes are treated during arithmetic, comparison and assignment operations. Subject to certain constraints, the smaller array is “broadcast” across the larger array so that they have compatible shapes.
The general broadcasting rules are similar to the broadcasting
rules implemented in numpy
, the only
difference occurring when both operands are fields, in which case the
fields are temporarily conformed so that:
 The fields have matching units.
 Axes are aligned according to their coordinates’ metadata to ensure that matching axes are broadcast against each other.
 Common axes have matching axis directions.
This restructuring of the field ensures that the matching axes are broadcast against each other.
Broadcasting is done without making needless copies of data and so is usually very efficient.
Valid operands¶
A field may be combined or compared with the following objects:
Object  Description 

int ,
long ,
float 
The field’s data array is combined with the python scalar 
cf.Data
with size 1 
The field’s data array
is combined with the

cf.Field 
The two field’s must satisfy the field combination rules. The fields’ data arrays and domains are combined taking into account:

A field may appear on the left or right hand side of an operator.
Warning
Combining a numpy array on the left with a field on the right does work, but will give generally unintended results – namely a numpy array of fields.
Resulting metadata¶
When creating a new field which has different physical properties to the input field(s) the units will also need to be changed:
>>> f.units
'K'
>>> f += 2
>>> f.units
'K'
>>> f.units
'K'
>>> f **= 2
>>> f.units
'K2'
>>> f.units, g.units
('m', 's')
>>> h = f / g
>>> h.units
'm s1'
When creating a new field which has a different domain to the input fields, the new domain will in general contain the superset of the axes of the two input fields, but may not have some of either input field’s auxiliary coordinates or size 1 dimension coordinates. Refer to the field combination rules for details.
Floating point errors¶
It is possible to set the action to take when an arithmetic operation produces one of the following floatingpoint errors:
Error  Description 

Division by zero  Infinite result obtained from finite numbers. 
Overflow  Result too large to be expressed. 
Invalid operation  Result is not an expressible number, typically indicates that a NaN was produced. 
Underflow  Result so close to zero that some precision was lost. 
For each type of error, one of the following actions may be chosen:
 Take no action. Allows invalid values to occur in the result data array.
 Print a
RuntimeWarning
(via the Pythonwarnings
module). Allows invalid values to occur in the result data array.  Raise a
FloatingPointError
exception.
The treatment of floatingpoint errors is set with
cf.Data.seterr
. Converting invalid numbers to masked values after an
arithmetic operation may be done with the cf.Field.mask_invalid
method. It is also possible to mask invalid numbers during arithmetic
operations (see cf.Data.mask_fpe
).
Note that these setting apply to all data array arithmetic within the
cf
package.
Operations on field components¶
Operating on a field component works in much the same was as operating on the field itself:
>>> a = f.field_anc('air_temperature standard_error')
>>> a.data
<CF Data: [[[1.2, ..., 5.6]]] K>
>>> a += 2
>>> a.data
<CF Data: [[[3.2, ..., 7.6]]] K>
If the component has bounds, however, the bounds are operated on with the same operand as for the variable’s data array:
>>> x = f.coord('X')
>>> x.dump()
Dimension Coordinate: longitude
standard_name = 'longitude'
Data(128) = [0.0, ..., 357.1875] degrees_east
Bounds(128, 2) = [[1.40625, ..., 358.59375]] degrees_east
>>> (x + 2).dump()
Dimension Coordinate: longitude
standard_name = 'longitude'
Data(128) = [2.0, ..., 359.1875] degrees_east
Bounds(128, 2) = [[0.59375, ..., 360.59375]] degrees_east
>>> (x + x).dump()
Dimension Coordinate: longitude
axis = 'X'
long_name = 'longitude'
standard_name = 'longitude'
Data(128) = [0.0, ..., 714.375] degrees_east
Bounds(128, 2) = [[1.40625, ..., 715.78125]] degrees_east
This means that cells do not change size when undergoing simple relocation. For example, of a coordinate of 0.5 with cell bounds of [1, 1] has 2 added to it, the the coordinate becomes 2.5 with cell bounds [1, 3].
Statistical operations¶
Axes of a field may be collapsed by statistical methods with the
cf.Field.collapse
method. Collapsing an axis involves reducing its
size with a given (typically statistical) method.
By default all axes with size greater than 1 are collapsed completely with the given method. For example, to find the minumum of the data array:
>>> g = f.collapse('min')
By default the calculations of means, standard deviations and variances use a combination of volume, area and linear weights based on the field’s metadata. For example to find the mean of the data array, weighted where possible:
>>> g = f.collapse('mean')
Specific weights may be forced with the weights parameter. For example to find the variance of the data array, weighting the X and Y axes by cell area, the T axis linearly and leaving all other axes unweighted:
>>> g = f.collapse('variance', weights=['area', 'T'])
A subset of the axes may be collapsed. For example, to find the mean over the time axis:
>>> f
<CF Field: air_temperature(time(12), latitude(73), longitude(96) K>
>>> g = f.collapse('T: mean')
>>> g
<CF Field: air_temperature(time(1), latitude(73), longitude(96) K>
For example, to find the maximum over the time and height axes:
>>> g = f.collapse('T: Z: max')
or, equivalently:
>>> g = f.collapse('max', axes=['T', 'Z'])
An ordered sequence of collapses over different (or the same) subsets of the axes may be specified. For example, to first find the mean over the time axis and subequently the standard deviation over the latitude and longitude axes:
>>> g = f.collapse('T: mean area: sd')
or, equivalently, in two steps:
>>> g = f.collapse('mean', axes='T').collapse('sd', axes='area')
Grouped collapses are possible, whereby groups of elements along an axis are defined and each group is collapsed independently. The collapsed groups are concatenated so that the collapsed axis in the output field has a size equal to the number of groups. For example, to find the variance along the longitude axis within each group of size 10 degrees:
>>> g = f.collapse('longitude: variance', group=cf.Data(10, 'degrees'))
Climatological statistics (a type of grouped collapse) as defined by the CF conventions may be specified. For example, to collapse a time axis into multiannual means of calendar monthly minima:
>>> g = f.collapse('time: minimum within years T: mean over years',
... within_years=cf.M())
In all collapses, missing data array elements are accounted for in the calculation.
The following collapse methods are available, over any subset of the axes:
Method  Notes 

Maximum  The maximum of the values. 
Minimum  The minimum of the values. 
Sum  The sum of the values. 
Midrange  The average of the maximum and the minimum of the values. 
Range  The absolute difference between the maximum and the minimum of the values. 
Mean  The unweighted mean, \(m\), of \(N\) values \(x_i\) is
\[m=\frac{1}{N}\sum_{i=1}^{N} x_i\]
The weighted mean, \(\tilde{m}\), of \(N\) values \(x_i\) with corresponding weights \(w_i\) is
\[\tilde{m}=\frac{1}{\sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i}
\sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i x_i\]

Standard deviation  The unweighted standard deviation, \(s\), of \(N\) values \(x_i\) with mean \(m\) and with \(Nddof\) degrees of freedom (\(ddof\ge0\)) is
\[s=\sqrt{\frac{1}{Nddof}
\sum_{i=1}^{N} (x_i  m)^2}\]
The weighted standard deviation, \(\tilde{s}_N\), of \(N\) values \(x_i\) with corresponding weights \(w_i\), weighted mean \(\tilde{m}\) and with \(N\) degrees of freedom is
\[\tilde{s}_N=\sqrt{\frac{1}
{\sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i}
\sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i(x_i 
\tilde{m})^2}\]
The weighted standard deviation, \(\tilde{s}\), of \(N\) values \(x_i\) with corresponding weights \(w_i\) and with \(Nddof\) degrees of freedom \((ddof>0)\) is
\[\tilde{s}=\sqrt{ \frac{a
\sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i}{a
\sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i  ddof}}
\tilde{s}_N\]
where \(a\) is the smallest positive
number whose product with each weight is an
integer. \(a \sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i\) is
the size of a new sample created by each
\(x_i\) having \(aw_i\) repeats. In
practice, \(a\) may not exist or may be
difficult to calculate, so \(a\) is
either set to a predetermined value or an
approximate value is calculated (see

Variance  The variance is the square of the standard deviation. 
Sample size  The sample size, \(N\), as would be used for other statistical calculations. 
Sum of weights  The sum of sample weights, \(\sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i\), as would be used for other statistical calculations. 
Sum of squares of weights  The sum of squares of sample weights, \(\sum_{i=1}^{N} {w_i}^{2}\), as would be used for other statistical calculations. 
Any collapse method that involves a calculation (such as calculating a mean), as opposed to just selecting a value (such as finding a maximum), will return a field containing double precision floating point numbers. If this is not desired, then the datatype can be reset after the collapse:
>>> g = f.collapse('T: mean')
>>> g.dtype = f.dtype
>>> h = f.collapse('area: variance')
>>> h.dtype = 'float32'
See cf.Field.collapse
for more details.
Regridding operations¶
A field may be regridded onto a new latitudelongitude grid:
>>> f
<CF Field: air_temperature(time(12), latitude(73), longitude(96) K>
>>> g
<CF Field: precipitation(time(24), longitude(128), latitude(64)) kg m2 s1>
>>> h = f.regrids(g)
>>> h
<CF Field: air_temperature(time(12), longitude(128), latitude(64) K>
By default the interpolation is firstorder conservative, but bilinear interpolation is also possible. The missing data masks of the field and the new grid are aslo taken into account.
See cf.Field.regrids
for more details.
Units¶
A field (as well as any other object which inherits from cf.Variable
) always contains a
cf.Units
object which gives the physical units of the values
contained in its data array.
The cf.Units
object is stored in the field’s Units
attribute but may also be accessed through the field’s units
and calendar
CF properties, which may take any value allowed
by the CF conventions. In
particular, the value of the units
CF property is a string
that can be recognized by UNIDATA’s Udunits2 package, with a few
exceptions for greater consistency with CF. These are detailed by the
cf.Units
object.
Assignment¶
The Field’s units may be assigned directly to its cf.Units
object:
>>> f.Units.units = 'days since 111'
>>> f.Units.calendar = 'noleap'
>>> f.Units = cf.Units('metre')
But the same result is achieved by assigning to the field’s
units
and calendar
CF properties:
>>> f.units = 'days since 111'
>>> f.calendar = 'noleap'
>>> f.Units
<CF Units: days since 111 calendar=noleap>
>>> f.units
'days since 111'
>>> f.calendar
'noleap'
Time units¶
Time units may be given as durations of time or as an amount of time since a reference time:
>>> f.units = 'day'
>>> f.units = 'seconds since 1992108 15:15:42.5 6:00'
Note
It is recommended that the units 'year'
and 'month'
be used
with caution, as explained in the following excerpt from the CF
conventions: “The Udunits package defines a year to be exactly
365.242198781 days (the interval between 2 successive passages of
the sun through vernal equinox). It is not a calendar year. Udunits
includes the following definitions for years: a common_year is 365
days, a leap_year is 366 days, a Julian_year is 365.25 days, and a
Gregorian_year is 365.2425 days. For similar reasons the unit
'month'
, which is defined to be exactly year/12, should also be
used with caution.”
The date given in reference time units is always associated with one of the calendars recognized by the CF conventions and may be set with the calendar CF property (on the field or Units object).
If the calendar is not set then, as in the CF conventions, for the purposes of calculation and comparison, it defaults to the mixed Gregorian/Julian calendar as defined by Udunits:
>>> f.units = 'days since 200011'
>>> f.calendar
AttributeError: Can't get 'Field' attribute 'calendar'
>>> g.units = 'days since 200011'
>>> g.calendar = 'gregorian'
>>> g.Units.equals(f.Units)
True
The calendar is ignored for units other than reference time units.
Changing units¶
Changing units to equivalent units causes the variable’s data array values to be modified in place (if required) when they are next accessed, and not before:
>>> f.units
'metre'
>>> f.array
array([ 0., 1000., 2000., 3000., 4000.])
>>> f.units = 'kilometre'
>>> f.units
'kilometre'
>>> f.array
array([ 0., 1., 2., 3., 4.])
>>> f.units
'hours since 200011'
>>> f.array
array([1227192., 1227168., 1227144.])
>>> f.units = 'days since 186011'
>>> f.array
array([ 1., 2., 3.])
The cf.Units
object may be operated on with augmented arithmetic
assignments and binary arithmetic operations:
>>> f.units
'kelvin'
>>> f.array
array([ 273.15, 274.15, 275.15, 276.15, 277.15])
>>> f.Units = 273.15
>>> f.units
'K @ 273.15'
>>> f.array
array([ 0., 1., 2., 3., 4.])
>>> f.Units = f.Units + 273.15
>>> f.units
'K'
>>> f.array
array([ 273.15, 274.15, 275.15, 276.15, 277.15])
>>> f.units = 'K @ 237.15'
'K @ 273.15'
>>> f.array
array([ 0., 1., 2., 3., 4.])
If the field has a data array and its units are changed to
nonequivalent units then a TypeError
will be raised when
the data are next accessed:
>>> f.units
'm s1'
>>> f.units = 'K'
>>> f.array
TypeError: Units are not convertible: <CF Units: m s1>, <CF Units: K>
Overriding units¶
If the units are incorrect, either due to a data manipulation or an incorrect encoding, it is possible to replace the existing units with new units, which don’t have to be equivalent, without altering the data values:
>>> f.units
'mm/day'
>>> f.mean()
<CF Data: 3.3455467 mm/day>
>>> g = f.override_units('kg m2 s1')
>>> g.mean()
<CF Data: 3.3455467 kg m2 s1>
>>> g.override_units('watts m2', i=True)
>>> g.mean()
<CF Data: 3.3455467 watts m2>
Overriding the calendar of reference time units is done in a similar manner:
>>> f.calendar
'360_day'
>>> f.array.min()
59.0
>>> f.min()
<CF Data: 19600230 00:00:00 360_day>
>>> g = f.override_calandar('gregorian')
>>> g.array.min()
59.0
>>> g.min()
<CF Data: 19600229 00:00:00 gregorian>
Note that in this case the data values have remained unchanged, but their datetime interpretation has been redefined.
See cf.Field.override_units
and cf.Field.override_calendar
for details.
Equality and equivalence of units¶
The cf.Units
object has methods for assessing whether two units are
equivalent or equal, regardless of their exact string representations.
Two units are equivalent if and only if numeric values in one unit are
convertible to numeric values in the other unit (such as
'kilometres'
and 'metres'
). Two units are equal if and only if
they are equivalent and their conversion is a scale factor of 1 (such
as 'kilometres'
and '1000 metres'
). Note that equivalence and
equality are based on internally stored binary representations of the
units, rather than their string representations.
>>> f.units = 'm/s'
>>> g.units = 'm s1'
>>> f.Units == g.Units
True
>>> f.Units.equals(g.Units)
True
>>> g.units = 'km s1'
>>> f.Units.equivalent(g.Units)
False
>>> f.units = 'days since 1987123'
>>> g.units = 'hours since 2000121'
>>> f.Units == g.Units
False
>>> f.Units.equivalent(g.Units)
True
Bounds units¶
The units of variables with cell bounds (i.e. coordinates and domain ancillaries) are always the same as the coordinate itself, and the units of the bounds automatically change when a variable’s units are changed:
>>> c.units
'degrees'
>>> c.bounds.units
'degrees'
>>> print c.bounds.array
[ 0. 90.]
>>> c.units = 'radians'
>>> c.bounds.units
'radians'
>>> print c.bounds.array
[ 0. 1.57079633]
Manipulating other variables¶
A field is a subclass of cf.Variable
, and that class and other
subclasses of cf.Variable
share generally similar behaviours and
methods:
Class  Description 

cf.AuxiliaryCoordinate 
A CF auxiliary coordinate construct. 
cf.CellMeasure 
A CF cell measure construct containing information that is needed about the size, shape or location of the field’s cells. 
cf.Coordinate 
Base class for storing a coordinate. 
cf.DimensionCoordinate 
A CF dimension coordinate construct. 
cf.Variable 
Base class for storing a data array with metadata. 
In general, different axis identities, different axis orders and different axis directions are not considered, since these objects do not contain a coordinate system required to define these properties (unlike a field).
Coordinates¶
Coordinates are a special case as they may contain a data array for their coordinate bounds which needs to be treated consistently with the main coordinate array. If a coordinate has bounds then all coordinate methods also operate on the bounds in a consistent manner:
>>> c
<CF Coordinate: latitude(73, 96)>
>>> c.bounds
<CF Bounds: (73, 96, 4)>
>>> d = c[0:10]
>>> d.shape
(10, 96)
>>> d.bounds.shape
(10, 96, 4)
>>> d.transpose([1, 0])
>>> d.shape
(96, 10)
>>> d.bounds.shape
(96, 10, 4)
Note
If the coordinate bounds are operated on independently, care should be taken not to break consistency with the parent coordinate.