cf.Field.measures¶

Field.
measures
(description=None, axes=None, axes_all=None, axes_subset=None, axes_superset=None, ndim=None, match_and=True, exact=False, inverse=False, copy=False)[source]¶ Return cell measure objects.
In this documentation, a cell measure object is referred to as an item.
Items are selected with the criteria specified by the keyword parameters. If no parameters are set then all items are selected. If multiple criteria are given then items that meet all of them are selected (see the match_and parameter).
Item selection criteria are of the the following types:
Selection criteria Description Keyword parameters CF properties Items with given CF properties description Attributes Items with given attributes description Domain axes Items which span given domain axes axes, axes_all, axes_subset, axes_superset, ndim Note that
f.measures(inverse=False, **kwargs)
is equivalent tof.items(role='m', inverse=False, **kwargs)
.Examples 1: >>> d = f.measures()
Parameters:  description: optional
Select the items whose descriptive attributes or CF properties satisfy the given conditions. The description parameter may be one, or a sequence, of:
None
or an empty dictionary. All items are selected. This is the default.
A string specifying one of the CF coordinate types:
'T'
,'X'
,'Y'
or'Z'
. An item has an attribute for each coordinate type and is selected if the attribute for the specified type is True. Example:
To select CF time items:
description='T'
.
A string which identifies items based on their stringvalued metadata. The value may take one of the following forms:
Value Interpretation Contains :
Selects on the CF property specified before the first :
Contains %
Selects on the attribute specified before the first %
Anything else Selects on identity as returned by an item’s identity
methodBy default the part of the string to be compared with an item is treated as a regular expression understood by the
re
module and an item is selected if its corresponding value matches the regular expression using there.match
method (i.e. if zero or more characters at the beginning of item’s value match the regular expression pattern). See the exact parameter for details. Example:
To select items with standard names which begin “lat”:
description='lat'
. Example:
To select items with long names which begin “air”:
description='long_name:air'
. Example:
To select items with netCDF variable names which begin “lon”:
description='ncvar%lon'
. Example:
To select items with identities which end with the letter “z”:
description='.*z$'
. Example:
To select items with long names which start with the string “.*a”:
description='long_name%\.\*a'
.
A dictionary that identifies properties of the items with corresponding tests on their values. An item is selected if all of the tests in the dictionary are passed.
In general, each dictionary key is a CF property name with a corresponding value to be compared against the item’s CF property value.
If the dictionary value is a string then by default it is treated as a regular expression understood by the
re
module and an item is selected if its corresponding value matches the regular expression using there.match
method (i.e. if zero or more characters at the beginning of item’s value match the regular expression pattern). See the exact parameter for details. Example:
To select items with standard name of exactly “air_temperature” and long name beginning with the letter “a”:
description={'standard_name': cf.eq('air_temperature'), 'long_name': 'a'}
(seecf.eq
).
Some key/value pairs have a special interpretation:
Special key Value 'units'
The value must be a string and by default is evaluated for equivalence, rather than equality, with an item’s units
property, for example a value of'Pa'
will match units of Pascals or hectopascals, etc. See the exact parameter.'calendar'
The value must be a string and by default is evaluated for equivalence, rather than equality, with an item’s calendar
property, for example a value of'noleap'
will match a calendar of noleap or 365_day. See the exact parameter.None
The value is interpreted as for a string value of the description parameter. For example, description={None: 'air'}
is equivalent todescription='air'
,description={None: 'ncvar%pressure'}
is equivalent todescription='ncvar%pressure'
anddescription={None: 'Y'}
is equivalent todescription='Y'
. Example:
To select items with standard name starting with “air”, units of temperature and a netCDF variable name of “tas” you could set
description={'standard_name': 'air', 'units': 'K', None: 'ncvar%tas$'}
.
A domain item identifier (such as
'dim1'
,'aux0'
,'msr2'
,'ref0'
, etc.). Selects the corresponding item. Example:
To select the item with domain identifier “dim1”:
description='dim1'
.
If description is a sequence of any combination of the above then the selected items are the union of those selected by each element of the sequence. If the sequence is empty then no items are selected.
 axes: optional
Select items which span at least one of the specified axes, taken in any order, and possibly others. Axes are defined by identfiying items of the field (such as dimension coordinate objects) or by specifying axis sizes. In the former case the selected axes are those which span the identified items. The axes are interpreted as those that would be returned by the field’s
axes
method, i.e. byf.axes(axes)
or, if axes is a dictionary,f.axes(**axes)
. Seecf.Field.axes
for details. Example:
To select items which span a time axis, and possibly others, you could set:
axes='T'
. Example:
To select items which span a latitude and/or longitude axes, and possibly others, you could set:
axes=['X', 'Y']
. Example:
To specify axes with size 19 you could set
axes={'size': 19}
. To specify depth axes with size 40 or more, you could set:axes={'axes': 'depth', 'size': cf.ge(40)}
(seecf.ge
).
 axes_all: optional
Select items whose data arrays span all of the specified axes, taken in any order, and no others. The axes are those that would be selected by this call of the field’s
axes
method:f.axes(axes_all)
or, if axes_all is a dictionary of parameters,f.axes(**axes_all)
. Axes are defined by identfiying items of the field (such as dimension coordinate objects) or by specifying axis sizes. In the former case the selected axes are those which span the identified field items. Seecf.Field.axes
for details. Example:
To select items which span a time axis, and no others, you could set:
axes_all='T'
. Example:
To select items which span latitude and longitude axes, and no others, you could set:
axes_all=['X', 'Y']
. Example:
To specify axes with size 19 you could set
axes_all={'size': 19}
. To specify depth axes with size 40 or more, you could set:axes_all={'axes': 'depth', 'size': cf.ge(40)}
(seecf.ge
).
 axes_subset: optional
Select items whose data array spans all of the specified axes, taken in any order, and possibly others. The axes are those that would be selected by this call of the field’s
axes
method:f.axes(axes_subset)
or, if axes_subset is a dictionary of parameters ,f.axes(**axes_subset)
. Axes are defined by identfiying items of the field (such as dimension coordinate objects) or by specifying axis sizes. In the former case the selected axes are those which span the identified field items. Seecf.Field.axes
for details. Example:
To select items which span a time axes, and possibly others, you could set:
axes_subset='T'
. Example:
To select items which span latitude and longitude axes, and possibly others, you could set:
axes_subset=['X', 'Y']
. Example:
To specify axes with size 19 you could set
axes_subset={'size': 19}
. To specify depth axes with size 40 or more, you could set:axes_subset={'axes': 'depth', 'size': cf.ge(40)}
(seecf.ge
).
 axes_superset: optional
Select items whose data arrays span a subset of the specified axes, taken in any order, and no others. The axes are those that would be selected by this call of the field’s
axes
method:f.axes(axes_superset)
or, if axes_superset is a dictionary of parameters,f.axes(**axes_superset)
. Axes are defined by identfiying items of the field (such as dimension coordinate objects) or by specifying axis sizes. In the former case the selected axes are those which span the identified field items. Seecf.Field.axes
for details. Example:
To select items which span a time axis, and no others, you could set:
axes_superset='T'
. Example:
To select items which span latitude and/or longitude axes, and no others, you could set:
axes_superset=['X', 'Y']
. Example:
To specify axes with size 19 you could set
axes_superset={'size': 19}
. To specify depth axes with size 40 or more, you could set:axes_superset={'axes': 'depth', 'size': cf.ge(40)}
(seecf.ge
).
 ndim: optional
Select the items whose number of data array dimensions satisfy the given condition. A range of dimensions may be selected if ndim is a
cf.Query
object. Example:
ndim=1
selects onedimensional items andndim=cf.ge(2)
selects items which span two or more axes (seecf.ge
).
 match_and:
bool
, optional By default match_and is True and items are selected if they satisfy the all of the specified conditions.
If match_and is False then items are selected if they satisfy at least one of the specified conditions.
 Example:
To select items with identity beginning with “ocean” and two data array axes:
f.measures('ocean', ndim=2)
. Example:
To select items with identity beginning with “ocean” or two data array axes:
f.measures('ocean', ndim=2, match_and=False)
.
 exact:
bool
, optional The exact parameter applies to the interpretation of stringvalued conditions given by the description parameter. By default exact is False, which means that:
 A stringvalued condition is treated as a regular
expression understood by the
re
module and an item is selected if its corresponding value matches the regular expression using there.match
method (i.e. if zero or more characters at the beginning of item’s value match the regular expression pattern).  Units and calendar strings are evaluated for equivalence
rather then equality (e.g.
'metre'
is equivalent to'm'
and to'km'
).
 Example:
To select items with with any units of pressure:
f.measures('units:hPa')
. To select items with a standard name which begins with “air” and with any units of pressure:f.measures({'standard_name': 'air', 'units': 'hPa'})
.
If exact is True then:
 A stringvalued condition is not treated as a regular expression and an item is selected if its corresponding value equals the string.
 Units and calendar strings are evaluated for exact
equality rather than equivalence (e.g.
'metre'
is equal to'm'
, but not to'km'
).
 Example:
To select items with with units of hectopascals but not, for example, Pascals:
f.measures('units:hPa', exact=True)
. To select items with a standard name of exactly “air_pressure” and with units of exactly hectopascals:f.measures({'standard_name': 'air_pressure', 'units': 'hPa'}, exact=True)
.
Note that
cf.Query
objects provide a mechanism for overriding the exact parameter for individual values. Example:
f.measures({'standard_name': cf.eq('air', exact=False), 'units': 'hPa'}, exact=True)
will select items with a standard name which begins “air” but with units of exactly hectopascals (seecf.eq
). Example:
f.measures({'standard_name': cf.eq('air_pressure'), 'units': 'hPa'})
will select items with a standard name of exactly “air_pressure” but with any units of pressure (seecf.eq
).
 A stringvalued condition is treated as a regular
expression understood by the
 inverse:
bool
, optional If True then select items other than those selected by all other criteria.
 copy:
bool
, optional If True then a returned item is a copy. By default it is not copied.
Returns:  out:
dict
A dictionary whose keys are domain item identifiers with corresponding values of cell measure objects. The dictionary will be empty if no items were selected.
Examples 2: